What are the Seven Philosophies of Education?
Your attitude, set of beliefs, goals, approach toward children, Education, politics, in fact, anything and everything all adds up to your personal philosophy.’ Here, in this article, we will be looking at the philosophyof Education, particularly. What are the major philosophies of Education? What are their aims and goals? What does their practical application look like?
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What are the Major Philosophies of Education?
The major philosophiesof Education are sometimes numbered up to five, and seven at other times. But all of them are grouped together under three major categories:
Teacher-centered philosophies of Education include
Philosophies of education that operate under student-cenetredness are:
Socially-centered philosophies of Education are grouped as:
Essentialism is the ‘traditional’ or old-school’ philosophy of Education. It emphasizes the root values of the society and the back to the basics’ approach of providing Education. It is a rather conservative and rigid method of Education that focuses more on local history, sciences, and character development and less on how an individual will deal with the adult, practical life.
Essentialist Schooling Method
An education system based on essentialism looks like a long day with pre-scheduled classes. Each class constitutes an instructor who tells what to do in the form of a lecture or an instruction list. Students are supposed to take notes, note down instructions for homework. This makes essentialism a more subject- and teacher-centered philosophy of Education. The teacher in a class plays the role model for the students. It may be an academic year or a semester, after which students are promoted to the next level of difficulty following an assessment.
For the curriculum, essentialists focus on language, history, culture, mathematics, and moral character development. Ways or methods of teaching are rigid and unattractive. Essentialism is criticized for being non-compatible with skill development, and hence the adult life of the coming era.
Perennialism has been most contributed by the works of Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas Aquinas. As the word perennial means “everlasting,” perennialism carries the same germs. It emphasizes focusing Education on ideas and knowledge that have survived through centuries and remain relevant to the present day. And that this way, students can learn for the sake of learning and become true intellectuals.
Like essentialism, perennialism is a more subject- and teacher-focused approach to Education that tends to make intellectuals and ethical role models. It denies the importance of vocational and life-adjustment courses, as according to its supporters, reasoning skills should rule ways of Education.
But unlike essentialism, perennialism also includes theology and spiritual philosophy and serves to guide one’s thought processes toward the understanding and appreciation of the great creative and historical works found in the literature.
A Perennialist Classroom
A Perennialist classroom serves to develop the reasoning and logical skills of students. It discourages the idea of providing facts and information and students absorbing them. It believes in spending more time understanding concepts and insightful ideas, understanding the human condition as a one.’
Progressivism believes that best learning can happen only when a student can relate his experience and surroundings with what he is learning. Individuality, progress, and change are its fundamentals. It focuses on cooperative learning strategies, practical knowledge, and active experimentation on the part of the students and teachers alike.
Progressivism is a rather modern, practically applicable, and useful, student-centered approach to Education. It basically serves to answer questions that arise through daily life experiences, circumstances, and situations.
A Progressivist Classroom
In a progressivist classroom, students are actively learning with and through each other. They are given problems from the real world and real-life to solve through cooperation and tolerance while focusing on individual talents. Replace homework with engaging in-class activities. With hands-on projects and experiential learning, progressivism focuses on making flexible, open-minded, self-motivated, and self-disciplined learners and thinkers. Rules and restrictions are cut to the minimum, and memory- and literature-based learning is discouraged.
Humanism employs the nature and basic goodness of human beings for their Education. It focuses on autonomy, personal freedom, choice, and responsibility inherent in an individual.
Humanism believes in understanding humanistic psychology when dealing with the behaviors and responses of the students. Assuming that humans respond and operate under their feelings and needs, a teacher should understand the reason for certain behavior of a student before punishing or rewarding.
A Humanistic Classroom
Students are given full autonomy and the right of choice over all matters ranging from daily activities to future goals. The student is the one who drives the route of his Education.
Students are encouraged to focus on the subject of their interest and passion through self-motivation and self-evaluation. A humanistic classroom caters to the needs of the student, provides him a safe environment where he can experiment, visualize, learn, decide, and plan. Meanwhile, the teacher is there to introduce him to new realms of knowledge and learning, helping him the way he chooses while focusing on the student as a whole, their feelings, and intellect.
Constructivism proposes that concepts, ideas, and understanding cannot be just transferred from the teacher to the student. Students learn through observations and constructing their own concept maps and understanding. This type of learning does not depend on memory. Instead, it stays with the student because he has discovered and transformed himself.
A Constructivist Classroom:
The constructivist teaching method is based on the following five principles:
The teacher introduces the subject or topic and asks questions to know what the student already knows or thinks.
Constructivism makes the student explore new aspects of an idea or concept by challenging their assumptions.
Problems of relevance
The teacher puts forth problems from the real world and real-life to enable the student to engage and apply what he learned.
Building the lesson around central ideas
Provide the students more insight into the topic.
Assessment and Assignment
Conduct an assessment and assign classwork or home assignment in the form of group projects.
Social reconstructionism sees Education as aiming for the betterment of the society as a whole and not just one individual seeking to earn bread or filling up his mind with facts and information. Thus, the aim of Education is social reform. Social reconstructionists believe that an educated individual and Education is the sole solution to the human oppression, poverty, violence, hunger, international terrorism, inflation, inequality, and such issues of the human condition.
A Reconstructionist Classroom:
To achieve the aims of the matter of study in a classroom has to be the real-world issues, and the mind of a student should be weaponed to invent and reinvent a world without these social issues of the human condition. It brings the world with its aching in the classroom, and the strategies to heal them, discussions, inquiry, broad perspectives, and dialogue should be the focus of the school. Reconstructionism thus is a community-based learning method.
While humanism believes that human is an entity with responsibility, conscience, and goodwill, behaviorism believes that humans are neither good nor bad. Instead, the behavior and response of a person are totally defined and ruled by his external environment. Provide positive reinforcement whenever students perform a desired behavior, and soon they will learn to perform the behavior on their own. This discourages the traditional method of instructional teaching.
Behaviorism has its roots in the work of the Russian experimental psychologist Ivan Pavlov (1848-1936) and the American psychologist John Watson (1878-1958).
A Behaviorist Classroom
Learning of a student should be driven by external and internal stimuli. The teacher prepares the aims, goals, and consequences of the material under study and tells them to deal with it accordingly. Therefore, there should be a trained instructor or an observer that should decipher the behaviors of individual students.
What is John Dewey’s Philosophy of Education?
John Dewey’s philosophy of Education is based on the notion that Education should focus on the practical life of an individual. And an institution should look like a primitive community life with vocational and occupational training permeated through art, history, and science.
What is the Best Educational Philosophy?
Student-centered and then society-centered philosophies of Education are the most popular ones.
Different communities and nations employ different philosophies of Education, sometimes overlapping ones. But this is just a broad view. Various institutions in the same region operate under different philosophies of Education. Educational philosophy is a subject with varied opinions and consequences from region to region, institution to institution.
How Do You Write a Philosophy of Education?
In an education portfolio, the philosophy of Education has a central role to play. You can write a statement of your philosophy of Education in the following steps:
State your objectives
Outline the methods of teaching to help achieve the stated objectives
State some form of evidence of your achievements in this regard
State what motivates you to teach? What are your goals as a teacher?
What Are The 5 Philosophies of Education?
Educational philosophies are sometimes numbered up to the following five:
The 6 Educational Philosophies
There are six main schools of thought in educational philosophy. The first school of thought, known as Realism, was founded by Aristotle and holds that the world is separate from human perceptions. Modern realist thinking has led to a “blank slate” view of human capabilities. The second school of thought, known as Pragmatism, believes in selecting ideas that are likely to have the most desirable outcome. The sixth school of thought, known as experimentalism, was introduced by John Dewey, a psychologist who advocated social and economic equality.
The third school of thought is known as Progressive Education, which rejects traditional methods of education. This philosophy involves using current events to teach students about social issues. In the process, students learn to work together for positive change. By incorporating current events into the classroom, the students are encouraged to think about and discuss these issues. This type of approach to education also emphasizes active participation and hands-on learning. These principles are the foundation for any successful school program.
The fourth school of thought, namely, the student-centered philosophy, advocates using current events as springboards to explore controversial world issues. This approach promotes the importance of working together for a common good, and focuses on engaging students in dialogue about the issues they encounter in their daily lives. For example, students are encouraged to discuss the importance of empathy in order to improve their lives. By using current events, such as a global crisis, perennialists believe that a child’s education is a preparation for life, as well as the development of rational thinking.
Perennialism: This philosophy emphasizes the importance of the human imagination in learning. It advocates the importance of collaboration in achieving goals. It focuses on the human flourishing and aims to prepare autonomous individuals. The advocate of the student-centered philosophy is concerned with cultivating the students’ intrinsic interests. In addition to fostering a student’s autonomy, they focus on developing the student’s personal qualities and enabling the students to develop their individuality.
Perennialism: This philosophy focuses on the importance of human autonomy. This philosophy emphasizes the importance of human flourishing in the future. In contrast to the dominant ideology, the aforementioned ideologies are complementary. Neither of the educational philosophies has a universal value. It is based on the interests of each group. So, which one do you prefer? If you are wondering what philosophies are best for education, here are the 6 primary types of them:
American Exceptionalism: The sixth educational philosophy, Progressive Education (PME), rejects traditional schooling. It teaches the importance of a culture’s spirit. It emphasizes the value of human dignity and freedom. Besides that, it teaches the importance of working together to improve the world. This is a popular approach among educators, so it is best to consider it for your classroom. It is a great way to educate students in a variety of disciplines.
Essentialists: These philosophies emphasize the importance of essential knowledge and skill acquisition in all areas of life. They believe that vocational classes are unnecessary. In essence, they are not important to an education. However, they are a major part of any school. You should know more about each type of educational philosophy before choosing one. The key differences between them can be significant. In the end, your choice will depend on what works best for you and your students.
Mimesis: This educational philosophy centers on human concerns. It promotes a well-rounded student. It emphasizes knowledge through the arts. It believes that the best way to educate a child is through knowledge. The six philosophies are the most popular in the United States, and there is no better place to learn. In addition to being a good person, it also promotes social development. It teaches students to respect and appreciate others.
Formalism: Using these philosophical approaches, teachers can choose from various educational approaches. The most popular is student-centered. It involves the student in all aspects of learning, from assessing the teacher to completing assignments. This philosophy allows students to develop their interests and abilities and contribute to the learning process. If you are looking for a school that is more student-centered, you might want to choose a program that is more interactive and flexible.
The Different Schools of Philosophy of Education
There are several different schools of philosophy of education. The best approach to teaching students will be a combination of both of these approaches. A perennialist philosophy, for example, focuses on the universal values of life and the value of enduring ideas. A perennialist classroom is one that stimulates reflection and dialogue. Curriculum should include subjects that include culture, as well as disciplines that develop intellectual skills. Historically, the curriculum often included content that was unnecessary or irrelevant to the needs of a particular student.
There are also many different approaches to philosophy of education. Analytic techniques gained popularity in the early twentieth century. These techniques gained hegemonic influence, and they dominated the field of philosophy of education for most of the twentieth century. A prescriptive approach, by contrast, stresses the importance of empirical study. This approach has the advantage of addressing a specific educational issue in a concrete context. It is not necessarily the best option for the general public, however.
A prescriptive philosophy is one of the oldest and most important. These systems are based on multiple issues, and the greatest philosophers rarely saw philosophy of education as a separate field. Rather, they built systems that addressed a variety of issues and were applied in the real world. The key to this philosophy of education is that it emphasizes reason and intellectual development, which are vital to the development of character and knowledge.
A more comprehensive approach is essentialism. This is a popular approach that argues that education must pursue perennial truths that are universal and absolute. It focuses on traditional subjects and academic knowledge in order to instill fundamental academic knowledge and character traits. There are several different schools of philosophy of education, and these tend to overlap with one another. They are often related in their scope, so it is important to understand the nuances of each philosophy.
The term philosophy of education can encompass different approaches. For instance, there are two main schools of thought. A fundamentalist school will focus on the importance of a fundamental truth in the context of a specific topic. An essentialist approach will focus on teaching subjects that are fundamental to the development of a particular culture. The latter approach will emphasize the importance of learning in general. The latter, on the other hand, is the more traditional approach.
The other type of philosophy of education is called essentialism. This philosophy emphasizes the importance of reason in education. It aims to develop children’s minds by focusing on the traditional subjects such as math and science. This view is popular with the majority of modern educators. The second type of philosophy focuses on character. The last one is known as positivism. As the name suggests, essentialism is the most fundamental type of philosophical approach.
An essentialist school focuses on the importance of education. The philosophy of essentialism stresses the importance of reason and intellectual development. It is the more traditional type of philosophy. It focuses on the traditional subjects of mathematics, language, and literature. Aperenialists emphasize the power of questions and repetition. In contrast, the perenialists place a priority on character development. This type of philosophical school of education is most compatible with the other two.
Essentialists argue that education should strive to achieve universal, essential truths. These principles are universal and cannot be changed. For these reasons, it is not possible to list all the philosophers of education. It is impossible to cover all of their work. A compendium of philosophers of education has more than 600 pages and 45 chapters. This method allows us to compare different schools and learn about them. In this way, we can make informed decisions and make our society more productive and prosperous.
Prescriptive approaches to education have very little in common. Both emphasize the importance of learning, as well as the importance of character development. The prescriptive approach is the most popular and most effective in the long run. Its advocates generally use canonical Great Works to support their argument. The prescriptive school is not the only one in the world. In fact, there are two other philosophical schools: idealistic and humanist.
The 5 Major Philosophies of Education
Educational philosophies have a wide range of different underlying beliefs and ideals. Some of these are more relevant than others. For example, the Idealist school focuses on the great ideas of culture, while the Realist and Pragmatism schools emphasize practical skills and methods. And there are the Existential and Postmodern philosophies, which focus on the values of excluded groups and the political situation.
The pragmatist philosophies focus on the problems of everyday living, and emphasize the importance of the teacher as a motivator and resource. They believe that teaching must be child-centered, with a focus on problem solving. Pragmatists also favor the sciences and philosophy of existence, which promotes critical thinking and responsibility. The classical liberal arts philosophies of education, on the other hand, emphasize the importance of learning about art, music, literature, history, and philosophy.
Perennialism: Ultimately, the goal of education is to foster enduring truths. This means that educational goals must be universal, absolute, and unchanging. This philosophy emphasizes the importance of reason, intellectual development, and character development. It emphasizes the traditional subjects of mathematics, science, and literature in an effort to foster rational thought and prepare students for life. The five major philosophies of education each have their own strengths and weaknesses, but they share certain common traits.
Essentialism: The essentialist philosophy of education advocates the pursuit of a deep and complete understanding of the world, which are revealed through great works of art, literature, and other forms of human experience. The ultimate goal of education is to foster knowledge of nature and the inner workings of the universe. The five disciplines of the curriculum should include elements of culture. In addition, the traditional curriculum did not cater to the needs of individual learners.
Essentialist: The essentialist philosophy of education emphasizes the need for students to gain knowledge in all areas of life. This philosophy prioritizes subjects such as math, science, and history. Its opponents, on the other hand, emphasize the need for a student to be more responsible for his or her own education. It is important to note that the essentialist philosophy does not require the teacher to be the sole authority in any area of life.
The Realism school of philosophy emphasizes the need for human development and is based on the concept of an “objective” world. The Realism school of thought is the foundation of modern education and is often characterized by its belief that human abilities are unbounded. By contrast, the Ethno-nationalism philosophy stresses the importance of the individual, and the role of the individual. It also emphasizes the need for cooperation between cultures.
The essentialist philosophies emphasize the importance of universal values and the need for students to understand these truths. They emphasize the importance of the study of classic works of art, and the study of classical texts. The essentialists believe that educational systems must be rooted in a set of enduring truths. However, if they are, the education system will be ineffective. A more effective philosophy of education would focus on the interests of students.
The Realist school of thought traces its origins to the ancient Greek philosophers. It believes that the existence of matter is indestructible. Likewise, the realist philosophy of education emphasizes the importance of freedom of the individual and the right to choose what they learn. The realist philosophy of education focuses on achieving an objective state of mind. It is concerned with the moral and spiritual values of students and the role of teachers. It is also concerned with the values of a society.
The essentialist school of thought aims to teach the fundamentals of teaching. It believes that a student should develop his/her own sense of responsibility and the power of reason. This philosophy is based on the idea that the classroom should not be a place for personal development or the development of character. For this reason, a teacher must be a mentor to the student. It should be the first step towards an objective educational environment.
What Are the 7 Philosophy of Education? Let’s Look at Each of Them
Perennialism is the foundation of the humanities and focuses on the great works of literature, art, and philosophy. This approach encourages classroom dialogue, which helps students develop awareness and personal reflection. It argues that knowledge passed down through the ages should be kept alive in the curriculum. It also emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and the development of an individual’s values. But it’s not clear which philosophy is best for our students.
While the 7 philosophy of education are important in their own ways, it’s best to know what they stand for before choosing a teaching style. The definition of a philosophy is not the type of techniques or methods you’ll use in class; rather, it’s the purpose of the educational process. Some people will advocate for a certain teaching style, while others will advocate for a more individualized approach. But regardless of the approach, the key is to decide what works for you and your students.
Philosophers of education also differ in how they view educational processes and the purpose of learning. Some are more ideological than others, and they focus on questions in political philosophy, metaphysics, and ethics. These questions can affect both the methods and content of education. However, most of these philosophers agree that the ultimate goal of education is to instill rationality and critical thinking skills in students. If you’re looking for a teaching philosophy, consider taking a class with a particular one.
The seven philosophy of education can be divided into 4 main categories. These are subject-centered philosophy, behaviorist philosophy, and naturalistic philosophy. There are even different branches of educational philosophy that can be categorized under these four. Regardless of which one you choose, there’s a philosophy that’s right for you. So, what are the 7 philosophical schools of education? Let’s look at each of them.
These philosophies can also be broken down into categories. Some philosophers focus on the purpose of education, while others focus on the way it should be implemented. In other words, they focus on how to create the best environment possible for students. There are a variety of reasons for this. But, if we don’t believe in a specific theory, why should we choose it? This is the essence of the question of all educational philosophy.
The topics of the philosophers of education are varied and can cover a variety of topics. Most of the philosophers of education focus on questions of politics, ethics, and morality. Other types of philosophy focus on how to use current events to teach students. In student-centered philosophy, students are active participants in the educational process. They have the choice over their projects and assignments. A student-centered philosophy is the most popular type of educational philosophy. It emphasizes the importance of current events to create positive change in the world.
Some philosophers of education focus on the value of a particular concept. Some believe that the most important purpose of education is to develop the human mind. A child should not be subjected to the idea of a morally right or wrong thing. A person should have the freedom to do what they want and not do what is imposed upon him or her. This is the essence of a moral philosophy of education.
The purpose of education is an important topic in all fields. It affects how we teach, how we think, and how we live. It’s the ultimate goal of our lives. But how can we be sure that our children are learning what is necessary? The answer to this question is a complicated puzzle. But a simple explanation is to remember that they need to be taught a moral value. This principle is not only important for our own lives, but it is a fundamental element of our society.
Educators can choose between existentialism and essentialism. It’s important to understand the difference between these two concepts. The seven philosophy of education has been used to make educational decisions since ancient times. Its purpose is to enhance the learning experiences of students. It aims to make them aware of their values. The purpose of education is to develop the mind and to help it learn. It’s crucial to have a clear understanding of the purpose of learning.