Skip to Content

Germination and Tocopherol Content of Germinated Sunflower Seeds

The early spring is the time of the germinated sunflower. I photographed the sunflower seed with a dslr camera and a wide angle lens. This was in the countryside of Europe. Here’s an explanation of the various aspects of sunflower oil and the activity of GABA, GAD, and acyl-ester hydrolase. You’ll probably also want to read about the other components of sunflower oil. Hopefully, these facts will help you decide which sunflower oil is right for your diet.

GAD activity

The germination of sunflower seeds is highly time-dependent. Seeds that germinate at 25degC have higher a-tocopherol concentrations than seeds germinated at 35degC. These results suggest that the optimal germination temperature may vary from 25 to 35 degC. This may be due to the relative stability of sugars/polyols and aqueous hydrolysis of organic acids.

The elevation of GA3 and ABA levels in seeds after laser irradiation was associated with plant growth and development, including cell elongation and auxin content. Plants with elevated GA levels showed increased height, branches, and flowers. Laser-mediated elevation of GA3 also increased the number of leaves. These results suggest that GA levels are important for plant growth. But a further study is required to determine whether laser irradiation enhances the level of plant hormones and metabolites in seedlings.

In a subsequent study, we determined the amount of GST activity in dormant and germinated sunflower seeds. We used a DEAE-Sepharose column with a flow rate of 20 ml/h, and a 3-ml fraction volume. The fractions were stained for GST activity. A typical elution profile can be seen in Fig. 1a and b.

After planting, sunflower seeds begin the germination phase, which may take up to eight days. Then, the shoot pushes out of the soil, searching for sunlight. Once this phase is complete, sunflower seeds move into the vegetative phase. The sunflower plant remains a seedling for thirteen days after breaking through the soil. This initial part of the vegetative phase is known as vegetative emergence. Once it has completed this phase, sunflowers begin the flowering process and become a beautiful yellow blooming plant.

GABA content

In this study, GABA levels in germinated sunflower seeds were determined using NIR spectroscopy. GABA content in seeds could be a useful nutritional supplement for consumers and industrial applications. GABA can mitigate salt damage during germination. In addition, it enhances starch catabolism and the utilization of sugar and amino acids. It also improves antioxidant defense, reducing oxidative damage. Moreover, it improves osmotic adjustment, thereby boosting antioxidant defense in plants.

The researchers tested GABA concentrations in various sunflower seed fractions. GABA content increased with germination time and a high level of GAD activity. However, the content of GABA decreased at higher temperatures. The researchers also found a negative correlation between cotyledon greening and GABA levels in sunflower seeds. However, they found that these effects were not consistent in sunflower seeds. It may be due to differences in the germination process, although their results were still useful.

This study also examined changes in metabolite levels during the germination of sunflower seeds. By analyzing the relative content of metabolites in these seeds, they were able to identify the most abundant compounds in germinated sunflower seed. Afterwards, the results were visualized using a heatmap diagram. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to further analyze the compounds in sunflower seeds.

In addition, GABA can enhance the nutrient and antioxidant contents in seedlings during stress. The compound improves leaf turgor and a-ketoglutarate, two key compounds in plants’ metabolism. GABA oxidation can result in these compounds. So, if you are looking for a way to increase the antioxidant activity in your sunflower seeds, GABA is the solution for you.

Pulsed strong-light physics is used to enhance the production of GABA in peanut seeds. The application of this method helps to activate enzymes, accelerate protein breakdown, and enhance the physiological and biochemical metabolism of the seed. The germination peanut has a GABA content of up to 280mg/100g. In addition to enhancing GABA content, this technique also improves the resistance of the seed.

a-Tocopherol content

The a-Tocopherol content of sunflower seedlings is influenced by light. We measured the total tocopherol content of germinated sunflower seeds and also studied the individual tocopherol levels in two lines with increased tocopherol content. To find the optimal light conditions for a-Tocopherol content in sunflower seedlings, we first calculated the areas under the curve (AUC) for each tissue type and light condition. The average AUC for cotyledons grown under dark conditions was 2994 + 1374 whereas this was only 2462 + 1021 for seedlings grown in light.

The a-Tocopherol content of the oil fraction extracted from seedlings that were 20 days old had a 4.3-6.5-fold higher concentration of phytosterols than in the intact seeds. This is because the oil fractions had depleted most of their reserves during germination. It is therefore important to monitor tocopherol levels in sunflower seeds to assess their effects on the oil content.

The large variability in the seed tocopherol profile of sunflower seeds has allowed researchers to study the effects of light on sunflower tocopherol levels. Sunflower seed oil contains between 0.5% and 45% of total tocopherols in the form of alpha-tocopherol. In the other case, sunflower seed oil contains between 0% and 70% of total tocopherols.

Using this method, we have found new sources of beta and gamma-tocopherol in germinated sunflower seeds. These mutations are the result of an induction process that differs from the traditional one. The artificial mutations in sunflower seeds have already induced a first level change in the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. After a second-level alteration, we can expect F-2 progenies with a higher concentration of a-Tocopherols.

Tocopherols are fat-soluble compounds with antioxidant activity. They are synthesized exclusively by plants and are critical for seed germination and storage. Phytosterols are also crucial for germination and storage. Commercially available Vitamin E supplements contain tocopherols but the concentration of tocotrienols is much lower than that of tocopherols.

acyl-ester hydrolase

Acyl-ester hydrolase is a key component of the fat content of germinated sunflower seeds. It is present in high amounts in several sunflower lines, but they are not present in the wild type. These mutants contain high levels of palmitic acid and triacylglycerols. The fatty acid composition of the sunflower seeds was similar in the wild type and the high-palmitic mutants exhibited higher levels of stearic acid and oleic acid.

The exact function of acyl-ester hydrolase in germinating sunflower seeds has not been fully determined, but a recent study has suggested that two acyl-ester hydrolases are specific to the pollen coat. In addition to the two identified acyl-ester hydrolases, a related sunflower protein has also been shown to be glycosylated.

These results suggest that the sunspot family may be responsible for the high levels of syringic acid in sunflower seedlings. In addition to syringic acid, there are several other phenolic acids in sunflower seedlings. The most abundant phenolic acid in sunflower seeds was caffeic acid. Both mRNAs for polyubiquitin and hexaubiquitin were detected during the late embryogenesis.

In addition to syringe-mediated stearic acid export, FatB thioesterases have been implicated in oil deposition in sunflower seeds. Moreover, fatA plays a role in the synthesis of sunflower oil. Furthermore, it is related to the supply of saturated acyl chains, as they serve as the substrates for other biosynthetic pathways. In addition, high-saturated sunflower seeds accumulate small amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, which require a high flux rate.

The protein extracts of black-grass were highly active in the hydrolysis of herbicide esters. These plant proteins had specific activities ten-fold higher than those of wheat shoots. The activity of these enzymes was subsequently correlated with the bioactivation of black-grass herbicide. It was also associated with high levels of the black-grass weed in Northern Europe. If you’re wondering whether or not the black-grass weed is related to alopecurus, there’s a good chance that you have!

Interestingly, fatty acyl-ester hydrolase in germinating sunflower seeds was not found in dry sunflower seeds. However, it developed gradually in cotyledon extracts and reached its peak activity after five days. This enzyme was purified six hundred-fold and biochemically characterised. It was not activated by organic solvents and had an acceptable pH value. The enzyme was detected in sunflower seeds only during the fifth day of dark germination.