Among all age groups, the percentage of women who use e-cigarettes has risen over the past two years. The reason behind this change is unknown. However, some factors can contribute to the trend, such as peer pressure and increased education. One article discusses the causes of the trend, as well as the effects of nicotine on fetal development.
Males are more likely than females to be current e-cigarette users
A new study has revealed that males are more likely than females to be present e-cigarette users. The findings are consistent with the gender gap in tobacco use, which is often reflected in cigarette consumption. Males are more likely to use e-cigarettes for health-related reasons, such as to quit smoking tobacco cigarettes. Females, on the other hand, commonly use these products for social reasons, such as to relieve stress or control mood.
Although the proportions vary by age and income, the survey found that men are more likely than women to be current e-cigarette users. In addition, non-Hispanic white adults were significantly more likely to be current e-cigarette users than non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults. However, the difference was not statistically significant between genders.
In 2018, about 8.1 million U.S. adults reported using an e-cigarette, making it the fastest-growing tobacco product in the United States. The report also revealed that the prevalence of e-cigarettes increased dramatically from 2013 to 2016, and across all age groups except the oldest. The proportion increased from 5% to almost 7%.
The study also showed that LGBTQ people were more likely than non-LGBT participants to use an e-cigarette. The study also found that the prevalence of vaping increased with education level. Young adults with college degrees were the least likely to be vaping.
Daily exclusive e-cigarette users were predominantly males, former smokers, and owned an average of two open-system e-cigarette devices. Male e-cigarette users had an average of 365 puffs per day. In addition, men used higher voltage levels and consumed more e-liquid per week than females. These daily e-cigarette users may be at risk for adverse health effects, so further research is needed.
Adults with higher education levels are more likely to vape
The prevalence of e-cigarette use among adults varied by country, with men being more likely than women to use the device. In six countries, the prevalence of e-cigarette use was less than one percent. In the other six countries, the prevalence varied between 0.01% and 2.7%. In Mexico, Russia, and China, the adjusted prevalence was higher among adults with higher education levels.
Higher education levels were associated with greater e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was also associated with higher individual wealth index among adults in certain countries. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between education and e-cigarette use.
Vaping was more prevalent among men and adults of non-Hispanic White, American Indian/Alaska Native, and multiracial individuals. Higher education levels were associated with higher vaping prevalence, and men had higher levels of education than women. Adults with a college degree had the lowest prevalence.
Young adults with experience of vaping were also more likely to engage in vaping than those who had no experience. The study also found that those interested in vaping had lower levels of conscientiousness than those who were not interested. These factors should be considered when designing interventions to curb the spread of the vaping epidemic.
The study also found that smokers with lower incomes were less likely to switch from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes. Non-Hispanic black smokers were less likely to use e-cigarettes than smokers with higher incomes. In addition, adults with higher educational levels were more likely to quit smoking without using e-cigarettes.
Peer pressure has been linked to teenage smoking for decades. In 2017, a meta-analysis of tobacco use found that adolescents aged 10 to 19 were twice as likely to use tobacco if at least one of their peers was a smoker. The researchers found that adolescents who participate in team sports were also more likely to be exposed to peer pressure.
While this type of peer pressure is not as extreme as it once was, it does still have the potential to encourage teenage vapers. A recent study of middle and high school students found that nearly 28 percent of them had used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days. This figure was nearly double the rate of students who smoked traditional cigarettes.
Peer pressure is a major motivator for adolescents. The research indicates that the social environment plays an important role, with older friends playing an advisory role for newly initiated vapers. This social influence is particularly evident among non-Hispanic white teens and Hispanic/Latinos, who are from higher-income households. Other sources of peer influence are the retail environment, family, and social media.
In addition, studies of ENDS use found a strong association with social networks. Teenagers with ENDS use were more likely to be exposed to anti-vaping messaging on social media than non-ends users. This suggests that anti-vaping advertisements can be an effective means of countering the peer influence.
Effects of nicotine on fetal development
There are concerns about the potential harmful effects of nicotine on fetal development, especially among women who use e-cigarettes. The substance can cause a range of complications, including a compromised placenta, decreased fetal growth, and miscarriage or stillbirth. Prenatal exposure to nicotine can also impair placental vascularization and decrease trophoblast differentiation, two important stages of embryonic development. The negative effects of nicotine on fetal development can have life-threatening consequences for both the mother and child.
The effects of nicotine on fetal development have been studied in animals, but there are no definitive results on how this substance can affect a pregnant woman. In Europe, 8% of pregnant women smoke, whereas only 6% do in the Americas. However, studies on pregnant women using ENDS are needed to assess how nicotine will affect their fetus. Some studies suggest that nicotine can affect fetal development by impairing the nervous system.
Other research has demonstrated that nicotine replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth in women who use e-cigarettes. In the United Kingdom, a large cohort of women who smoked during pregnancy was used to study the effects of nicotine on the fetus. The researchers analyzed the association between nicotine use and major congenital anomalies. Despite the lack of definitive results, it is imperative that pregnant women stop smoking and e-cigarette use, as well as avoid smoking and secondhand smoke exposure.
Although the effects of nicotine on pregnancy are still unknown, the rising trend of vaping among women of reproductive age is a cause for concern. While most women perceive e-cigarettes as healthier than traditional cigarettes, limited research has shown that vaping may harm fetal development. Thus, clinicians need more data to educate pregnant patients about the potential risks of nicotine during pregnancy.
While longer-term data are not available, studies have shown that the e-cigarette use during pregnancy delays implantation of the fertilized embryo, despite the presence of progesterone in the mother’s body. Additionally, vaping during pregnancy results in stunted growth in the offspring. These children are significantly smaller than those from mothers who did not vape.